● These were local, scattered and isolated Hindus and Muslims.Besides their traditional differences they joined their hands together against the British Rulers.
● They were not very strong but they established a tradition of struggle against the foreign rule/British rule.
● Millions of peasants , artisans and soldiers participated.
● It shook the British government to its very foundation.
[This expansion caused resentment among the rulers of the nature states and the India People too.]
b) By Subsidiary Alliance
c) By Using the Doctrine of Lapse
d) On the Pretext of Alleged Misrule/Annexation of Awadh.
⑶ Treatment given to Nana Saheb
⑷ Absentee Sovereignty of the British
⑸ Unpopular Administration/Administrative failures.
2. Introduction of railways and telegraph / Apprehension about Modern Innovations
3. Policy of Racial Discrimination
4. Corruption in Administration
5. Oppression of the poor
6. Activities of Missionaries
7. Fears regarding Western Education
8. Tax on Religious Places
9. Law of Property
10. Indignities hurled (impelled with great force) at Indians.
2. India reduced to an Agricultural Colony of the British
3. Decay of Cottage Industries and Handicrafts
4. Drain of wealth
5. Economic Decline of Peasantry / Impoverishment of the cultivators
6. Inhuman Treatment of Indigo Cultivators
7. Grouping unemployment
8. Poverty and Famine
9. Decline of Landed Aristocracy
2. Bleak/Poor Prospects of Promotions
3. Deprivation of Allowances.
4. General Service Enlistment Act
5. Larger Proportion of Indians in the British Army
6. Faulty Distribution of Troops
7. Poor Performance of British Troops
8. Lower Salaries
9. The Immediate Cause- Introduction of the Enfield Rifle